Articles by Dr. Richard Meinhart

Chapter 7: "National Military Strategies 1990 to 2009" in U.S. Army War College Guide to National Security Issues, Vol II: National Security Policy and Strategy, 4th Edition. By Richard M. Meinhart
This chapter focuses on the Chairmen's leadership challenges and how they developed and used four different national military strategies in 1992, 1995, 1997, and 2004 to respond to those challenges. It describes in broad terms the strategic environment facing each Chairman, as it formed the basis for his subsequent military strategy. Then each of the strategies key components, which were organized around an ends, ways and means construct, are examined. Full publication link HERE

Vice Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and Leadership of the Joint Requirements Oversight Council By Richard M. Meinhart
Military leaders at many levels have used the advice and processes associated with strategic planning councils in various ways to position their organizations to respond to the demands of current situations while simultaneously transforming to meet future challenges. This article broadly identifies how the last seven Vice Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff led the Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC), the Nation's most senior joint military advice council, to provide recommendations to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) to help enable him to meet his resource-focused responsibilities.

Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staffs Leadership By Richard M. Meinhart
Chairmen Joint Chiefs Of Staff's Leadership Using The Joint Strategic Planning System In The 1990S: Recommendations For Strategic Leaders - June 2003 - Using the Joint Strategic Planning Sate in the 1990s: Recommendations for Strategic Leaders By Richard M. Meinhart -The Joint Strategic Planning System has been considered the primary formal means by which the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff executed his statutory responsibilities specified by Congress in Title 10 of the U.S. Code.

Strategic Planning by the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staffs 1990-2005 By Richard M. Meinhart
This article examines how the Chairmen Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1990 to 2005 used a strategic planning system to respond to their global challenges. By analyzing this planning systems evolution, processes and products along with each leader's use, leadership concepts are identified for future leaders in the following areas: use of vision; balancing flexibility and structure in processes and products; responding to different types of challenges; and influencing climate and culture.

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Articles by Dr. Steve Gerras

Moving Beyond the MBTI: The Big Five and Leader Development By Dr. Stephen J. Gerras, Dr. Leonard Wong.
In the recent past, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) has been the staple of self-awareness for Army leaders (and often their spouses) across the entire spectrum of professional military education ranging from the U.S. Army Sergeants Major Academy to the U.S. Army War College

America's Army: Measuring Quality Soldiers and Quality Officers By Dr. Stephen J. Gerras, Dr. Leonard Wong.
After four decades of the great experiment called the All-Volunteer Army, it has become abundantly clear that recruiting and retaining quality soldiers is a vital prerequisite to the success of America’s Army. While superior American technology, competent training, and efficient logistics are undoubtedly critical aspects of battlefield dominance, it is the Army’s resolute reliance on high quality officers and soldiers that has kept the All-Volunteer Army the world’s premier fighting force.

Lying to Ourselves: Dishonesty in the Army Profession By Dr. Leonard Wong, Dr. Stephen J. Gerras.
Untruthfulness is surprisingly common in the U.S. military even though members of the profession are loath to admit it. Further, much of the deception and dishonesty that occurs in the profession of arms is actually encouraged and sanctioned by the military institution. The end result is a profession whose members often hold and propagate a false sense of integrity that prevents the profession from addressing—or even acknowledging—the duplicity and deceit throughout the formation. It takes remarkable courage and candor for leaders to admit the gritty shortcomings and embarrassing frailties of the military as an organization in order to better the military as a profession. Such a discussion, however, is both essential and necessary for the health of the military profession.

Changing Minds in the Army: Why It's So Difficult and What To Do About It By Stephen J. Gerras and Leonard Wong
In October of 2000, General Eric Shinseki, the US Army's Chief of Staff, delivered a speech announcing some very significant changes for the Army - a new readiness reporting system, improvements to the beleaguered military medical system, and a proposed increase in the size of the Army to alleviate the deployment strain on soldiers. Somehow, however, these initiatives were overshadowed by a seemingly innocent policy change announced almost as an afterthought-issuing every soldier a black beret.

Developing Army Strategic Thinkers By Leonard Wong and Steve Gerras
This article was published in "Exploring Strategic Thinking: Insights to Assess, Develop, and Retain Army Strategic Thinker. Research Product 2013-01. United States Army Research Institute for Behavioral and Social Sciences. February 2013
When the Army's Chief of Staff, General Martin E. Dempsey, was selected for the position of chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff - the highest ranking officer in the U.S. military - it seemed to make sense that the senior uniformed advisor to the President should come from the service that has deployed more troops to Iraq and Afghanistan than those provided by the Navy, Air Force, and Marines combined. Moreover, the Army has more general officers than any of the other services, so it appears logical that key billets at the strategic level should also be heavily populated by Army generals.

Effective Team Leadership: A Competitive Advantage By Steve Gerras and Col Murf Clark
Leading and team leadership are related, but distinct. In today's environment, senior leaders must master both competencies. In what follows, we argue Army leaders need to develop - in more rigorous and deliberate ways - team leadership skills that go beyond the basic leadership competencies. Leaders of highly successful teams embody the leadership traits already familiar to us, but in even greater measures and at more sophisticated levels. Given the need for 21st century Army leaders versed in full spectrum operations, we assert that specific team leadership skills can provide competitive advantage for senior field grade officers. The team leadership model we offer addresses some concepts not currently discussed in professional military education.

The Army as a Learning Organization By Steve Gerras
Joint Vision 2020 asserts that the United States military's ability to achieve full spectrum dominance in the year 2020 will be strongly influenced by our capacity for intellectual and technical innovation. JV 2020 goes on to mandate a military force that focuses on continuous learning as a means to cope with uncertainty in a rapidly changing environment. 1 Similarly, the results of the Army Training and Leader Development (ATLDP) Officer Study concluded that in order to train leaders who will thrive in a complex, ambiguous environment the Army "must commit to being a learning organization that institutionalizes the organization's learning philosophy.

Thinking Critically About Critical Thinking: A Fundamental Guide For Strategic Leaders
In the post Cold War security environment many senior leaders in the Army and throughout the Department of Defense have asserted a need to develop better critical thinking skills. The requirement for better critical thinkers stems from a realization that the complexity, uncertainty, and ambiguity characteristic of the current environment mandates a need to refrain from Cold-War thinking methodologies and assumptions. As the epigraphs (above) suggest, there is a large gap between the Army's desire to develop critical thinking skills and what actually happens. This gap is due not only to a general lack of understanding of what critical thinking is, but also a lack of education by both faculty and Army leadership on how to develop critical thinkers.

Organizational Culture: A Hybrid Model By Steve Gerras, Leonard Wong, Charles D. Allen
Explanations for the success of militaries both in war and peace have traditionally focused on key factors such as technology, leadership, personnel, training, or a combination of all of the above. A more recent addition to the list of possible variables contributing to the effectiveness of military organizations is the concept of culture. As expected, most applications of the concept of culture in a military context do so with the term military culture. While military culture is often used effectively as an overarching label for the military's personality, way of thinking, or values, there is little literature that defines the term military culture, categorizes or delineates the values that military culture claims to capture, or more importantly, provides methods or techniques to change the military culture.

Army Football and Full Spectrum Operations
Can the Army learn anything from decision regarding the Army football program as it develops its future force?
Published November 2009, Authored by Dr. Stephen Gerras

The Effects of Multiple Deployments on Army Adolescents
Frequent U.S. Army deployments increase the burden on children who must face the stress and strain of separation and anxiety. The authors take a much-needed, detailed look at the effects of multiple deployments on Army adolescents....
Published January 2010, Authored by Dr. Leonard Wong,Dr. Stephen Gerras

CU @ The FOB: How the Forward Operating Base is Changing the Life of Combat Soldiers
The situation in post-war Iraq is producing combat veterans accustomed to a perspective of combat that differs greatly from past wars. The authors explore the facets of fighting from the FOB....
Published March 2006, Authored by Dr. Leonard Wong,Dr. Stephen Gerras

Strategic Leadership Competencies
The strategic leadership literature is replete with long lists of the knowledge, skills, and abilities. Looking across the literature on strategic leadership, current Army strategic leader competencies, and the future environment, six meta-competencies can be derived: identity, mental agility, cross-cultural savvy, interpersonal maturity, world-class warrior, and professional astuteness....
Published September 2003, Authored by Dr. Leonard Wong,Dr. Stephen Gerras,COL William Kidd,COL Robert Pricone,COL Richard Swengros

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Articles by Dr. Andrew Hill

'Self-Interest Well Understood': The Origins and Lessons of Public Confidence in the Military by Dr. Andrew Hill, Dr. Leonard Wong, and Dr. Stephen Gerras
Despite a significant decline in the public's regard for American institutions, the US military continues to be held in high esteem. Indeed, many in American society see the military as the exemplary national institution, from which the nation should derive lessons for application to myriad aspects of public and private life, including developing citizenship and civic engagement among America's youth.

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Articles by Prof Charles D. Allen

A More Perfect Union, Black Soldiers and the Promise of America

Allen, Nagl, JFQ 109, 2nd Quarter 2023
Well into the third decade of the 21st century, the U.S. military is reassessing its connection to the society that it is chartered to protect and serve. While it is easy to declare and embrace the mission to fight and win the Nation's wars, it is more challenging to forge and sustain an institution that lives its espoused values and holds its members accountable for the principles put forth in its founding documents.

Three distinguished colonels led the way for others

Allen, Military Army Times, Feb 2023
Black History Month provides the opportunity to reflect on events of national prominence and create a connection to our current context.

The year 1973 marked the end of the draft Army and the transition to the All-Volunteer Force for the U.S. military. This year is both the 50th anniversary of the volunteer force and the 75th anniversary of the presidential directive to desegregate the military.

A Better Future, Applying Lessons Learned from Hybrid and Blended Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Allen, Harper, Hillison, Reeves, October 2022
The increased use of hybrid and blended learning approaches as an adaptation to the COVID-19 pandemic has provided valuable learning that should not be ignored. The U.S. Army War College, professional military education, and other institutions of higher education should not let the opportunity provided by this crisis slip by without reimagining curriculum and instruction. This article suggests that future resident education programs can benefit by deliberately incorporating distance-learning techniques into future course delivery. However, this will require intentional and sound instructional design as well as buy-in and commitment by resident faculty members to develop online competencies.

Misunderstanding Organizational Change

Abbe, Allen, Galvin, Hosie, Sipos, WOTR, August 2021
Organizational change doesn't and can't happen through stand-downs and education alone, no matter how well-executed. Organizational change requires sustained implementation beyond the schoolhouse, not just conversations within professional military education. A recent article by two of our U.S. Army War College colleagues criticized this year's Department of Defense extremism standdown in an indictment of stand-downs more broadly. The authors offer examples of problematic stand-downs and some insightful suggestions. Unfortunately, their message gets lost among inflated expectations of what stand-downs can accomplish.

Community Voices: Thoughts for Independence Day 2021 — Freedom of Speech

Allen, The-Sentinel, July 2021
At this time last year we were in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic with the nationwide shutdown that began in mid-March 2020. The pandemic subsequently precluded the celebration of the traditional start of summer with the Memorial Day weekend - a distinctly American holiday.

Commentary - A Graduation Like No Other

Allen, Penn Capitol Star, June 2021
This summer two cohorts of U.S. Army War College students will graduate, adding to the lineage that started in November 1904. The Resident Education Program (REP) will graduate in early June and followed by the Distance Education Program (DEP) in mid-July - together they will comprise the USAWC Class of 2021. It would be an understatement to say that their Carlisle Experience was different from previous years.

Maj. Gen. Charles C. Rogers: Talent through diversity, equity and inclusion

Allen, Military Times, Jan 2021
The United States military experiences during the First and Second World Wars highlighted the need for quality leadership in the officer ranks. While the American professional officer corps has traditionally been attributed to the training, education, and development of leaders at the United States Military Academy at West Point, that source of commissioned officers could not meet the demands of a force at war.


Bullis-Allen, War Room, Dec 2020
In 2004, the Commanding General, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) directed the USAWC to conduct a study to inform the future development of Army Division Commanders.

Charismatic Leadership Covered Failures

Allen, ARMY, July 2020
A few years ago, I heard a senior Army officer lament that the then- Army chief of staff had to deal with congressional inquiries on sexual assault and sexual harassment. The concern was that the chief had more important issues to address, whereas sexual assault prevention was a distractor.

Book Review - Red Teaming: How Your Business Can Conquer the Competition by Challenging Everything by Bryce G. Hoffman

Allen, Book Review, April 2020
Red teaming is a book where readers can learn what business leaders have culled from the US military experience over the past two decades. It is an organizational "how-to" that provides tactics, techniques, and procedures to improve decision-making and performance for leaders and managers.

Diversity Management and the Postdiversity Vision: An Applied Pragmatist Approach

Allen, Galvin, Sage Journals, April 2020
The U.S. Military institutionalized diversity management to ensure equality of treatment and opportunity for members while eliminating discrimination in all its forms. But progress toward diversity goals has been inconsistent. For example, the U.S. Military's implementation of the repeal of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell law was less successful in integrating transgender soldiers

Is Professional Military Education Really "Stagnant"

Allen, War Room, Aug 2019
How does one respond when the senior steward of the U.S. military profession states that its education system is stagnated? Then-Secretary of Defense James Mattis made such a declaration in his 2018 National Defense Strategy. This pronouncement carried an additional sting given Mattis was a retired four-star officer who served as an institutional leader as Commandant, US Joint Forces Command and Supreme Allied Commander Transformation concurrently and then as the combatant commander of US Central Command.

Developing Senior Officers Who Soldiers Want To Follow

Allen, Bullis, War Room, Mar 2019
For over a decade, several Army War College (USAWC) colleagues have run a simple exercise with their students. Students are asked to think of the general officers and flag officers (GO/FO) with whom they have directly worked or have only one degree of separation - GO/FOs with which each student is very familiar. Based on receiving a notional phone call offering an assignment with that GO/FO, students then place each senior leader into one of four mutually exclusive buckets aligned with four responses.

Commentary - Military legacy is rich with African-American contributions

Allen, Military Times, February 2019
Black History Month provides the opportunity for us to be curious, to look around, and to learn more about the contributions made by African-Americans to our country.
I continue to discover that our military legacy is rich, though we often do not know "the rest of the story." It is important to understand how we came to our current station in American society and how far we have come. This is especially true for officers of color.

The Tale of Two Generals Who Became Secretary of Defense

Allen, War Room, January 2019
Flag officers are esteemed members of American society, both inside and outside the military. By and large, they exhibit the best qualities of leadership and character the nation has to offer. They also have decades of experience gained through their military service; in times of peace, conflict, and national crisis, they have proven themselves in varied contexts. So, when the commander-in-chief and president of the United States calls upon retired flag officers to continue serving as high-ranking civilians, it reflects well on the officers and those who served under them. Their effectiveness and success are determined by the relationships they develop and sustain with civilian leaders. Importantly, the character of their service informs the study of civil-military relations and has implications for the profession of arms.

Preparing Officers for an Uncertain Future

Allen, Charles D.Army; Arlington Vol. 68, Iss. 12, (Dec 2018): 6.
Available from
Across DoD each year, cohorts of senior military officers engage in joint professional military education at the department's senior-level colleges. Each military service runs a war college and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is responsible for colleges under the National Defense University. In Carlisle, Pa., the U.S. Army War College opens its academic year with the Introduction to Strategic Studies course. For the third year, the focal case of the First Gulf War is used to "set the hook" for key topics of the year.

Military Officers Need to Be Politically Savvy

Allen, Australian Outlook, August 2018
Much of the discussion about civil-military relations in democratic societies focuses on the proper behaviour of military officers in support of elected or politically-appointed civilian officials.
The development of senior uniformed leaders who can effectively develop, employ and sustain forces to secure national interest continues to be of paramount importance. Such leaders at the highest levels necessarily exert power and influence in the conduct of their martial duties inside of defence organisations, as well as externally as members of the military profession.

Diversity and Mixed Messages

This letter is a reflection on the potential impact of the July 3, 2018 joint statement by the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice rescinding seven documents that provide guidance on the "Voluntary Use of Race" for admission to educational institutions.

BOOK REVIEW: The Life and Work of General Andrew J. Goodpaster: Best Practices in National Security Affairs

Allen, Parameters, Spring 2018
The Life and Work of General Andrew J. Goodpaster is part of the American Warrior series from the Association of the United States Army (AUSA) that examines unique historical contributions of individuals with enduring legacies. The subject of this book, Andrew Goodpaster, is an iconic military leader and exemplary national security professional who many feel has not gotten proper acknowledgment commensurate with his impact. This reviewer was understandably cautious and approached the task with healthy skepticism, given the project was sponsored by two activities for which Goodpaster was associated for more than a decade. Written as a biographical tribute, the book is published in partnership with the AUSA, the Atlantic Council, and the Eisenhower Legacy Council.

Taking A Bite of the APPLE(W), Understanding the Defense Enterprise

Allen,Bradford, Mil Review, May June 2018
With great fanfare and high expectations, the Department of Defense (DOD) implemented the National Security Personnel System (NSPS) in 2006. This replacement for the General Schedule (GS) was intended to bring DOD civilian personnel practices into the twenty-first century. Accordingly, it implemented pay for performance through the use of pay pools that supervisory panels would use to assess civilian employees’ achievement of designated objectives. The panel would then allocate pay increases and bonuses based on performance. In 2009, Congress passed a law ending NSPS, and in response, President Barack Obama’s first official act was telling the department to go back to the old GS system.

Army 2-star made history before, after military integration
Allen, 2018
This year marks the 70th anniversary of the integration of the U.S. armed forces. But by the time President Harry Truman issued Executive Order 9981 declaring "that there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin," Frederic Davison had been to war for his nation and back again.

Keeping David From Bathsheba: The Four-Star General's Staff as Nathan
Weigle Allen, JME, 2017
Readers of reports on ethical failures by four-star general officers must wonder, "Don't they have staffs to ensure that the general follows ethics rules?" The Department of Defense publishes robust ethics guidance in several documents; however, a staff's best efforts to implement this guidance may fail to make an impression on a senior leader who is susceptible to the "Bathsheba syndrome," an allusion to the biblical account where the prophet Nathan rebuked King David for his moral failings. This paper proposes a methodology to enable senior headquarters staffs to play the role of Nathan in supporting ethical behaviors by high-level officers. It examines the mechanisms that embed ethical behavior within members of those staffs in carrying out their three principal roles of advising, scheduling, and transporting the four-star officer.

Review, Negative Leadership: International Perspectives
Parameters Autumn 2017
The study of leadership has become an industry, and researchers and authors have partitioned this broad subject area into several catagories such as political, business, and corporate leadership; civic leadership; and military leadership

War College Students Along for the (Staff) Ride
Allen, ARMY, August 2017
Students at the U.S. Army War College must develop frames of reference in preparation for their roles as strategic leaders. Apart from the traditional curriculum of core and elective courses with volumes of reading material, lectures from prominent leaders and scholars, and group-based experimental exercises, one way to do that is the staff ride.

Civil_Military Relations in Transitions
Allen, JFQ 86 (3), July 2017
On Inauguration Day 2017, President Donald Trump inherited from President Barack Obama's administration the current cohort of uniformed military leaders at the most senior levels across the Department of Defense (DOD). Over the previous 2 years, President Obama had selected an impressive group of military officers. This process included the emplacement of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) and of the Vice Chairman by the end of fiscal year 2015, and of each of the Service chiefs by October 2016. Over the course of President Obama’s second term, these senior officers engaged with both executive and legislative branches of the U.S. Government in the exercise of civilmilitary relations (CMR). At times, the relationship was contentious as the President formulated policies and strategies for military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Likewise, military leaders advocated for relief from sequestration measures based on the Budget Control Act of 2011.

Review of The Politics of Innovation
Allen, Parameters, June 2017
Popular literature has focused on creative individuals (Walter Isaacson's Innovators, 2015) and innovative organizations (Schmidt and Rosenberg's How Google Works, 2014) in attempts to discern key traits, processes, and cultures that produce the "secret sauce" and lead to success. At the heart of this success is the ability of individuals and organizations to develop and exploit new technologies with phenomenal results. At a higher level of analysis, scholars seek to discern the factors and conditions among nations that support growth in science and technology. Arguably, science and technology fuel the engines of national economies and are linked inextricably to security interests.

Trust, Risk and Failure: Creating and Sustaining Innovation in Army Culture
Thompson, Allen, ARMY, March 2017
While the Army is touted as the world’s best-trained and best-equipped land force, it must learn and adapt or risk failure in providing national security for an uncertain future. Changing culture and sustaining our competitive advantage will require skilled professionals who know how to promote and protect innovation within the ranks.

War College Fills Gaps In Leader Preparation
DeCoster, Allen, Orsi, ARMY, Dec 2016
With the following words, then-U.S. Ambassador to Britain John Hay summarized the 1898 Spanish- American War: "It has been a splendid little war, begun with the highest of motives, carried on with the highest of motivations, carried on with magnificent intelligence and spirit, favored by that fortune which loves the brave."
While the war resulted in victory and strategic gains for the U.S., it revealed several flaws in the planning and execution of military operations. Foremost among then-Secretary of War Elihu Root's reforms to address institutional failures was the establishment in 1901 of the U.S. Army War College (USAWC). Here, military officers would "study and confer upon the great problems of national defense, of military science, and of responsible command."

Review of Just War Reconsidered
Allen, Parameters, Autumn 2016
Lieutenant General (Ret.) James Dubik has written a little book with big ideas. After an extraordinary military career, he served as the Omar N. Bradley Chair of Strategic Leadership at the US Army War College, completed a PhD in philosophy, and is now Professor of Practice in the Strategic Studies Program at Georgetown University.

The Future of Senior Service College Education
Allen-Filiberti, JFQ-81_48-53, 2016
In 2014, Joint Force Quarterly (JFQ) helped stimulate professional dialogue on joint professional military education (JPME) by establishing a new section titled "JPME Today." This article continues the discourse on JPME policy issues. Although initially directed by the Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986, jointness has grown to become an integral part of our military culture. Applying the U.S. Army leader development framework, the three pillars of joint training, joint work experiences, and JPME all served to reinforce competencies and helped acculturate jointness within a heretofore Service-centric military.

Tarnished: Toxic Leadership in the US Military Book Review
Allen, Parameters
Yogi Berra, the American baseball icon, is known for his paradoxical quotes. For Dr. George Reed, "You don’t have to swing hard to hit a home run. If you got the timing, it'll go" is wholly appropriate. While an Army colonel, Reed was in the inaugural cohort of the Professor US Army War College program, earned a PhD in Public Policy Analysis and Administration, and returned to Carlisle to serve as the Director of Command and Leadership Studies. At the Army War College, he was involved in a study directed by the Army Chief of Staff to explore the phenomenon of toxic leadership.

War College Graduates Light the Path Ahead
Allen, ARMY, May 2016
U.S. Army War College students have happily entered the last block of the core curriculum. Their sights are set on June graduation.
Our Defense Management course is commonly referred to as "DM." One of my seminar students redesignated the acronym to represent "doom and malfeasance" after the opening lessons of the course as we examined the statutory authorities, functions and organization of DoD and the armed services.

The Challenge of the Paradoxical Vision: Innovating Where No Solution Seems Possible
Galvin and Allen, APOJ 16-6, February 2016
Perhaps the clearest illustration of the challenges for communicating a vision for the Department of Defense can be found in the annual Secretary of Defense Testimony to Congress. In his March 2015 testimonies, Secretary Ash Carter outlined the threats that the U.S. military must be able to counter. To confront these threats, he outlined the Defense Innovation Initiative (DII) as the change effort to "ensure the military continues to ride the leading edge of innovation." While the DII is aspirational, there are several competing interests within the bureaucracy of defense that naturally push against innovation and the change it requires. This paper explores the nature of the relationship between paradoxical visions and innovation using current and historical examples, and provides recommendations for current and future leaders seeking to foster cultures of innovation.

It's Time to Establish Ethics-Related Metrics
Allen, ARMY, February 2016
In July 2006, DoD initiated the "Check It" campaign as part of its internal management controls program and coopted the military aphorism "what gets checked gets done." To check that something is being done correctly requires measurement and metrics.

Book Review: Congress and Civil-Military Relations
Allen, Parameters, 2015
Trust is a recurring theme within the United States military’s recent study of the profession of arms. Within the profession, it is the trust among its members: officers and enlisted as well as the senior and junior members of the armed services.

Book Review: Head Strong: How Psychology is Revolutionizing War
Allen, PMSAR Vol 43, 2015
As the United States military reexamines the operational domains of land,sea, and air in the twenty-first century and has recently expanded to include space and cyber domains, perhaps the most important domain is the human one

Commentary: Reaffirm commitment to caring for veterans
Allen, ArmyTimes, November 2015
As Veterans’ Day 2015 approaches, our active-duty, reserve-component, and former service members are closely watching the ongoing Capitol Hill budget debates. For the fourth successive year, the U.S. government is operating under another continuing resolution.

An All-Volunteer Force for Long-Term Success
Runey, Allen, Military Review, Nov-Dec 2015
In 2014, America's modern all-volunteer force (AVF) observed its fortieth anniversary. The AVF has, largely, been deemed a success by policy makers as well as the general public since its inception during the Vietnam War up until the conflicts initiated by the 9/11 attacks. However, the last fourteen years of war have placed unprecedented demands on the AVF that have pushed the enlisted force in the Army to near the breaking point. The consequence of such prolonged stress is that the AVF's long-term viability as a high-quality, affordable, professional force is now at risk. Of particular concern, as the military faces new, rapidly mutating global threats, is the increasing challenge the services—especially the Army—have in acquiring the high-quality enlisted talent they need.

Prodigal Soldiers of the 21st Century
Allen, ARMY, Aug 2015
Imagine the career experience of U.S. military company and field grade officers who joined the commissioned ranks after the 9/11 attacks. They answered the call to duty in the face of a very clear and present danger to U.S. citizens. These officers joined to carry the fight to the enemy, as amorphous and ill-defined as "they" were. In many deployments, our officers served in an environment that one-time Army Chief of Staff Gen. George Casey called an "era of persistent conflict," journalist Dexter Filkins deemed in his book of the same title "the forever war," and soldier-scholar Andrew Bacevich called "perpetual war."

Quo Vadis? The Education of Senior Military Officers
Allen, JFQ 78, July 2015
This article considers approaches to teaching senior military officers at the U.S. Army War College (USAWC). It reviews the results of several studies and surveys from the employers of our graduates and from recent graduates themselves on how best to prepare for future assignments. It examines the tensions between theoretical and utilitarian education in strategy and concludes with a recommendation that USAWC faculty design and implement a portfolio approach to provide students with the opportunity to demonstrate the benefits of seniorlevel education.

Professional Military Education, Mentoring Has Value When Your Soldiers Want for Experience
Galvin, Allen, ARMY, July 2015
Counseling, coaching and mentoring are three vitally important leader development activities for maintaining excellence and professionalism among the Army's officers, NCOs and civilians. Each activity serves a different purpose. Counseling allows subordinates to receive constructive feedback from their supervisors to improve duty performance. Coaching is how leaders guide their subordinates toward achieving higher levels of knowledge and skills. Mentoring is for more transformational purposes, accelerating the development of professional expertise, maturity, and conceptual and team-building skills. Together, these activities help leaders grow professionally and personally while preparing them for positions of increasing responsibility.

Ethics and Army Leadership: Climate Matters
Allen, Parameters, Spring 2015
As US news and media reports continue to expose unethical behavior within the American profession of arms, it is important to explore how Army leaders-and their organizations-have lapsed into questionable ethical conduct. This article addresses the tension between competence and character within the Army’s culture, offers lessons from the business world on ethical behavior and leadership, and critiques current Department of Defense (DoD) and Army approaches to assessing ethical climates.

Book Review, Every Citizen a Soldier: The Campaign for Universal Military Training after World War II
Allen, Parameters, 2015
As the American profession of arms seeks to reclaim its identity, it is encouraging to see the emergence of warrior-scholars. William Taylor is one, as an Annapolis graduate and former US Marine Corps officer who transitioned back into civilian society to pursue a career in academia. In Every Citizen a Soldier, Taylor appropriately examines familiar terrain - the US policy formulation process to address postwar national security through the preparedness of its military force to protect American interests. Ostensibly, his thesis is the US military’s drive to reduce the time to prepare individuals and units for war through a program of universal military training was subverted by political and social agendas.

Developing Army Enterprise Leaders
Allen, Woods, Military Review, July 2015
The U.S. Army finds itself once again in the familiar circumstances of uncertainty and ambiguity that seem to occur every decade or so. The recurring pattern begins with engagements in extended military operations, then restructuring of the force based on lessons learned, and then projections regarding future threats and the capabilities needed to deal with them.

Military, Congress, a Study in Interaction
Allen, ARMY, June 2015
As U.S. Army War College students approach their June graduation, they are offered a great case study on the interaction of our military with the U.S. Congress. With each approaching spring, the lineup of senior defense officials and general officers on Capitol Hill is impressive. Civilians and uniformed members from DoD and across the armed services provide testimony to congressional committees on their organizations' posture, the readiness of the force and the risks in accomplishing assigned missions.

Hard Rights Trump Easy Wrongs
Allen, ARMY, April 2015
As a retired member of the U.S. military profession, I am troubled by the news and media reports of bad behavior within the profession of arms.

Educational Climate for Innovation
Allen, Leader to Leader, Spring 2015
In a rapidly changing world, pehaps the only thing separating those organizations that can maintain long-term success from their rivals is the quality of their leadership.

Army's paradox: 'Culture of lying' vs. professionalism
Allen, Army Times, 2 Mar 2015
My U.S. Army War College colleagues have caused another ripple in the pool of Army culture. Drs. Lenny Wong and Steve Gerras's monograph "Lying to Ourselves: Dishonesty in the Army Profession" is sure to evoke discussion among members of the largest military service.

Avoiding Strategic Misfortune, A Framework for Defence leaders
Allen, The RUSI Journal, December 2014
As the global security environment becomes increasingly complex and world leaders are less and less willing to fund defence capabilities, the key question is how senior defence and military leaders can better prepare themselves to analyse the strategic environment and avoid misfortune. Charles D Allen and Jeffrey L Groh argue that senior defence leaders need an integrated analytical approach and outline one such developmental framework for learning, anticipating and adapting to emerging challenges in the strategic environment. This framework should be applied to address the security challenges of the twenty-first century.

Four freedoms - our Thanksgivings
Allen, The Sentinel, 30 November 2014
One morning my wife invited me to sit on the back patio of our new home. Our house is modestly landscaped and we look upon a small greenbelt. There were plenty of birds of all types at the feeders and in the wood line. A mourning dove caught my eye and reminded me of an encounter from a prior year.

It was the first year of my retirement from active duty and, while we were waiting for our home to be built, we moved into a townhome apartment complex just outside of Carlisle Barracks. We were fortunate to be “camping out” in a new development that also attracted several international fellows who brought their families with them for the yearlong stay in America.

Creative Strategy Book Review
Allen, Parameters, Autumn 2013
Within the past decade, the Department of Defense (DOD) and its armed services have issued a call for agile leaders and adaptive organizations while stressing the need for creativity and innovation to sustain US strategic advantages. Many national security professionals will agree with the needs but our military seems continually challenged by creating an effective "how to" that can provide national security advantages. Dr. William Duggan in his latest work, Creative Strategy: A Guide for Innovation, provides insights and a framework that may be useful within DOD. He examines two traditional methods claiming to yield creative ideas for strategy: methods of creativity (developing ideas) and methods of strategy (analyze strategic situations).

One Towns Army Pride
Allen, Army Times, 27 Oct 2014
The transition from summer to fall seasons is always bittersweet. It is especially poignant for members of Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, as we recall the service and sacrifices of those who have been a part of our community. In August, Maj. Gen. Harold Greene (“Harry” to us) became the most senior U.S. casualty while deployed since the Sept. 11 attacks.

As soldiers leave, show them Army Strong
Allen, Army Times, 8 Sep 2014
Readers of Army Times headlines on Army force reduction measures would agree with the assessment by University of Maryland sociologist Mady Segal that the U.S. military is a greedy institution. It makes “great demands on individuals in terms of commitment, loyalty, time, and energy ...

Skin in the Game, Breach of Trust, Book Reviews
Allen, Parameters, Summer 2014
These two books approach the same topic, the all-volunteer force, from different analytic perspectives. While the term all-volunteer force is meant to include all armed services, the focus of these works is the service with the largest manpower component, the United States Army. Preserving the nation’s security is a critical issue in this age of fiscal austerity facing the US government amid the struggles within the Congress, its political parties, and the executive branch. The challenge is to manage the national debt while providing for the security of American citizens. All indications point toward significant near-term reductions in Department of Defense budgets with resulting cutbacks in manpower, modernization, and readiness. The US military consumes over fifty percent of the discretionary spending of the federal government. Absent existential threats, it should be scrutinized for funding cuts.

Military Innovation Through Brilliant Mistakes
Hill, Allen, Army, July 2014
In February 2004, two bright Army analysts wrote an article published in ARMY Magazine about the need for a culture of innovation because of the risks of war. "Failure does not mean Chapter 11 and an updated resume," wrote then-Brig. Gen. David A. Fastabend and defense analyst Robert H. Simpson. “Failure means death and destruction for ourselves, our comrades and all that we cherish.” Their groundbreaking discussion called for a cultural change to advance the importance of innovation. Indeed, the Army has innovated and developed new warfighting capabilities, in large part because the nation was at war. In war, a gap between expected and actual performance of a plan, tactic or system creates a demand signal for change.

Trust in Action
Allen, ARMY, May 2014
It was early June 1979 in Schweinfurt, Germany, at the height of the Cold War. The Army was transitioning from the Vietnam War and building an allvolunteer force with severely limited funding for training and operations. B Battery, 2nd Battalion, 39th Field Artillery, had just come off a successful certification during a battalion-level Army Training and Evaluation Program, and new officers were filling important positions. I was the battery executive officer (XO), after having spent six months as the fire direction officer (FDO).

Guest Editorial: Lessons from our American heroes
Allen, The Sentinel, 7 April 2014
Once again we are transfixed by the news of another shooting at an Army base by an afflicted veteran resulting in the deaths of our service members. "Broken" is the description too often applied to those who serve our nation and struggle in their return to its communities.
In July 2011, I was fortunate to learn of the inspiring stories of two other soldiers while watching cable TV. Comedy Central's "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart" featured an interview with Medal of Honor winner, Sgt. 1st Class Leroy Petry. On the other end of the media spectrum, Fox TV's "Huckabee" introduced his viewers to Wounded Warrior Capt. Scott Smiley and his wife Tiffany.

Shaping a 21st-Century Defense Strategy, Reconciling Military Roles
Braun, Allen, JFQ 73, April 2014
Once again the U.S. military is transitioning from a period of sustained conflict to a resource constrained and uncertain future. Accordingly, the Nation is again debating its global role and how to develop an appropriate national security strategy. Even before that strategy is fully formulated, the military submitted a budget that comports with fiscal austerity while sustaining current readiness and investing in capabilities to meet future requirements for a complex international security environment.

Senior Leader Diversity: What does the Army Value?
Allen, Army Times, 31 March 2014
"Don't tell me what you value. Show me your budget, and I'll tell you what you value." I first heard this during the 2008 presidential campaign debates. The quote came to mind as I sat in the audience among senior Army officers who were being prepared for the next stage in their careers as advisers to strategic leaders.
Plainly evident, the composition of this Senior Leader Seminar (SLS) group of high performing and high potential officers (about one hundred colonels) did not reflect the diversity of our Army and the nation. The Army has long espoused the value of diversity and inclusion in its ranks and among its leaders. But the Army's "budget" for senior leadership, evident in this elite SLS group, did not affirm the value it otherwise places on racial and gender diversity.

A Lesson in Humility
Allen, The Sentinel, 26 March 2014
Well the Fiscal Year 2015 president's budget is submitted, quadrennial defense review released, and congressional testimonies have begun with our senior defense leaders.
Many of the conversations will center on the role of the U.S. military, its capabilities, and its resourcing. Amid the rhetoric and impassioned calls for the "special" status of our military, I am drawn to a personal reflection.

Guest Editorial: Tribute to a fallen warrior-servant
Allen, The Sentinel, 11 Nov 2013
As our nation observes Veterans Day, it is fitting to remember the life of a young American soldier who was among four service members killed in Afghanistan Oct. 6. The usually imposing edifice of the Pentagon was diminished by the foreground of marble headstones in Arlington National Cemetery. One of the last internments of the day was for a young Ranger, Sgt. Patrick Hawkins, of Carlisle. Those gathered to honor Patrick included family and friends, serving comrades in arms, neighbors and retirees, and motorcyclists who accompanied the funeral procession. Although the attending senior officials were the Secretary and Chief of Staff of the Army, rank did not matter. All joined equally in somberly celebrating the life, service and sacrifice of this young soldier.

TRUST, Implications for the Army Profession
Allen, Braun, Military Review, SepOct2013
TRUST is at the heart of the Army Profession. As the Army transitions from an era of substantial operational deployments to an era characterized by training and preparing the force for the next series of conflicts, it will face several threats to trust. An environment of reduced force structure and fiscal austerity will accompany the transition. How the Army profession fares in the coming decade will be based on the trust the institution engenders among its members (uniformed and civilian) and with the American people.

Drift: The Unmooring of American Military Power
Allen, Parameters, Review, Summer 2013
Rachel Maddow is probably the best well-known woman commentator in the twenty-first century. Host of The Rachel Maddow Show on MSNBC, her brand is one of biting humor and striking analysis from a liberal perspective. I expect she would be amused and flattered that a review of her book, Drift, is included in Parameters. To dismiss Maddow out-of-hand as a liberal policy wonk would be imprudent given her credentials as a Rhodes Scholar who holds a Doctorate of Philosophy in Politics from Oxford University.

Guest Editorial: Duct tape, cardboard, and humility
Allen, The Sentinel, 24 August 2013
Earlier this month featured a good week at the U.S. Army War College in Carlisle.
Students from across the globe arrived at the college, processed through the administration requirements of the installation, and received a bevy of orientation briefings for the community. Along the way, there were icebreaker gatherings for the newly formed cohorts and a county fair to learn about the myriad activities available inside and outside the gate for the greater Carlisle community.

Letter: Reflections on the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg
Allen, The Sentinel, 6 July 2013
On the eve of the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, there was a phenomenal program of authors and speakers to set the strategic and cultural context for the events of 1-3 July 1863. I watched a great deal of the program on CSPAN3. A closing segment of the cable broadcast featured callers from across the United States. A California woman remarked there was little to no attendance by African-Americans for the day's commemorative event. She asked "why not?" since the battle and the war led to their freedom from slavery.

Front &Center "The Path Ahead"
Allen, ARMY, July 2013
Following the success of Operation Desert Storm, the Army proceeded with its drawdown in the 1990s. The "end of history" required restationing forces from Germany and restructuring the force in the continental United States.

Allen, Army Times, 24 June 2013, pg. 37
The May release of the Defense Department's report on sexual assault in the military for fiscal year 2012 continues to drive an understandably high level of attention and outrage from Congress and the American people. The increasing numbers of reported sexual assaults from Calendar Year 2004 to Fiscal Year 2014 is a most disturbing trend, but not the one of most concern to our military profession.

Much More than 1 percent
Allen, The Sentinel, 27 May 2012
The day began early last year, as is the habit of our retired military officers. At 6:30 am, members of the Carlisle Sunrise Rotary Club gathered to place U.S. flags along the cross roads of the town square in preparation for the Memorial Day parade. The community procession began promptly at 9 a.m, led by the commanding general of the U.S. Army War College and Carlisle Barracks with several delegations, which represented the Pennsylvania National Guard and several veteran associations. Accompanying the active, reserve, and retired military groups were the numerous civic and public service groups that make up our unique community. And, of course, the bands provided the music of pride, commemoration, and reflection.

The Pit and the Pendulum, Civil-Military Relations in an Age of Austerity
Allen, AFJ, May 2013
In Edgar Allan Poe's Short Story "The Pit and the Pendulum," an unnamed protagonist avoids a fatal fall only to find himself in deadly danger from a swinging blade. Today's senior military leaders are in similar straits, though it's not their lives at risk but rather the American people's trust in their armed forces.

Book Review: Bridging the Military-Civilian Divide: What Each Side Must Know About The Other-And About Itself
Allen, Parameters, 2012
While many treatments of civil-military relations focus on the exchange between appointed and elected officials with their uniformed senior military officers, this book examines the gap between American military culture and the civilian society it serves. The author is no stranger to the critique and provocation of the military establishment. While not inside the profession of arms, Dr. Bruce Fleming has the unique perspective of a civilian academic with long-standing engagement in a sector of the US military. Fleming has served over 25 years as a tenured professor of English at the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis.

Back to Basics, The Army must reinforce standards of discipline
Allen, AFJ, Nov 2012
Nearly two years into the Army Profession campaign, this systematic effort to identify and promote key principles has assessed the service's strengths and weaknesses, identified things it needs to embrace - and made clear that discipline in the ranks has become a casualty of war. Now, as service leaders prepare to set the standards for the Army of 2020, they can default to the prewar "tried and true" or they can seize the opportunity to embed and apply innumerable lessons from a decade of conflict.

Book Review: A First-Rate Madness: Uncovering the Links Between Leadership and Mental Illness
Allen, Parameters, 2012
The title of the book bends the quip about an iconic American leader, President Theodore Roosevelt, who was described as "having a second-rate mind, but a first-rate temperament." Teddy Roosevelt, even with his quirkiness, seemed to have the right presence of mind to lead the nation into the changing environment and uncertainties of the dawning twentieth century. The author, Dr. Ghaemi, offers a provocative premise-individuals who experience mental illness are better suited to lead organizations, societies, and nations more so than "normal" people. He presents a counter proposition that individuals who are mentally healthy can be successful leaders in times of stability and certainty but fail during times of crisis.

Creative Thinking for Senior Leaders
Allen, May, 2012
Leadership at all levels is involved with tackling existing problems and anticipating threats and opportunities that may emerge for the organization and the attainment of its goals. Rarely are those problems identical; many important issues facing strategic leaders require novel approaches. Consequently, solutions to tough problems require creativity and innovation from members of an organization if it is to adapt and thrive in a competitive landscape. The greater challenge for senior leaders that extends beyond individual problem solving is the development of organizations that have the capacity to adapt to accelerated change and the unpredictability of the future.

Charles D. Allen and Andrew A. Hill
Of the three strategic leader tasks presented in the US Army War College Strategic Leadership Primer—alignment, vision, and change—arguably the most important is for the leaders to develop and promulgate a vision for the organization.

Charles D. Allen, Breena E. Coates, George J. Woods III
The goal for the year at the United States Army War College (USAWC) is to prepare our students to be strategic leaders or to serve as effective advisers to the senior leadership of our military and this Nation. Accordingly, we help students gain an appreciation of the context and processes of strategic decision making. In the summer of 2005, then-Secretary of State Colin Powell, addressed the Distance Education

Applying Clausewitz and Systems Thinking to Design
Cunningham, Allen, USAWC Guide to Strategy, June, 2012
Strategic campaign planners and statesmen often begin their analyses by assuming a linear cause-and-effect relationship, similar to a move-countermove exchange in chess. Although such linear formulations may sometimes be a useful starting point, they can also be disastrously misleading. Systems thinking, however, provides an alternative that compensates for the limits of linear reasoning in military design. This chapter considers the implications of systems thinking as a theory and applies the implications of systems complexity specifically to military operational design. The perspectives of Carl von Clausewitz, the Prussian military theorist, inform current doctrine on design, and the Clausewitzian concept of center of gravity provides an essential tool for commanders to employ in designing campaigns.

Our Veterans Deserve Better, What is the responsibility of those still in uniform?
Allen, AFJ, April, 2012
In the summer of 1932, amid the Great Depression, several thousand veterans of World War I gathered in the nation's capital to express their discontent with the U.S. government. In particular, they came to protest the failure of Congress to pass legislation to provide veterans with emergency relief. This Bonus Army camped in Washington for 10 weeks, growing to 24,000 people before it was finally evicted by federal troops after two protesters died in clashes with Capitol Police.

Assessing the Army Profession
Allen, Parameters, Autumn, 2011
Following the methodology of former Army Chiefs of Staff when faced with times of change and turbulence, Secretary of the Army John M. McHugh and Chief of Staff of the Army General George W. Casey directed the initiation of the Profession of Arms campaign. The US Army, even while experiencing the many accomplishments that have extended over a decade of war, is still faced with a number of critical challenges that need to be addressed. By asking questions and sensing the responses of its members, the Army will be capable of examining and diagnosing its health as a profession.

The Engagement of Military Voice
Allen - Coates, Parameters, Winter, 2009
Distinctive operational competencies from the civilian and military sectors provide usable knowledge to both. When military voice (in the form of counsel, advice, guidance, and suggestions) is given appropriate credence, unique capabilities flow easily back to the civilian leaders of the armed forces. When voice and counsel are muted or constrained, the information flow will entropy and valuable knowledge will be lost. Using military experience as case studies, this article discusses the principal form of error occurring due to the principals' ineffective engagement of the military voice.

The Army Profession: Trust is First
Allen - Braun, ISME, January, 2012
In 1992, then-Major Mark Rocke's, "Trust, the Cornerstone of Leadership," was recognized as the MacArthur Military Leadership award-winning essay. That paper was written in aftermath of successful operations in Iraq (Desert Shield/Desert Storm) and in the midst of the of post-Cold War drawdown of the U.S. Army. Rocke's exploration of trust challenged the conventional wisdom that effective leadership enables trust by reversing the direction of causality and posited that building trust provides the foundation for effective leadership. His analysis was primarily at the unit level and focused on three dimensions of trust-integrity, competence, and predictability-by subordinates in their commanders. Rocke provided the simple statement that trust is the expectation "held by leaders and those led."

The More Things Change, Acquisition Reform Remains the Same
Eide - Allen, Defense Acquisition University, January, 2012
For over 60 years, the Department of Defense has attempted to fix its weapon systems procurement without success. While notable exceptions emerged during the Global War on Terrorism (i.e., rapid development/fielding of Mine Resistant Ambush Protected vehicles and Improvised Explosive Device defeat systems), "Acquisition Reform" efforts have not consistently yielded a process/system that delivers products faster, better, or cheaper.

Beyond leading boots on the ground
(Allen, Washington Post, November, 2011
Senior military leaders are sometimes asked, "What keeps you awake at night?" A simple answer is the prospect of failure of the U.S. military to execute successfully the tasks the nation requires of it..

Profession of Arms - Starfish Metaphor
(Allen, SSI, September, 2011
The Profession of Arms (PoA) Campaign began with much fanfare, but the Community of Practice (CoP) has since wrestled with many important issues during the planning and conduct of the campaign. While there are many implicit assumptions about the Army as a Profession, the PoA White Paper (December 8, 2010) provided the catalyst to explore what it means to be a PoA. In the initial planning sessions with the Commanding General, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (CG TRADOC), the endeavor to define the PoA led to the stalking horse of attributes and the challenge to define the membership within the profession. This short paper is meant to address the latter question of "who is in" and "who is out" of the PoA.

Book Review: "The Stress Effect: Why Smart Leaders Make Dumb Decisions - And What to Do About It" by Henry L. Thompson
(Allen, Parameters, Spring, 2011
There are several recent books and articles that explore leader failures, often attributing to them bad behavior, character flaw, or dysfunction. The Stress Effect offers a different approach and perspective that may be useful to leaders and managers across several domains.

How to Build a National Security Team
(Allen, Washington Post, Jun 6, 2011
We may never know the totality of factors that went into the recommendation of the Department of Defense senior leaders for the new chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and its acceptance by the commander in chief.

The Impact of a Decade at War
(Allen, Armed Forces Journal, May 1. 2011)
It would be easy to discount the conjecture that the Army is in trouble. After all, it is unmatched as a fighting force and successfully conducted military operations that achieved regime change in two countries in the space of 18 months. Total U.S. military spending averaged nearly $720 billion over the past four years and exceeded 46 percent of global defense spending in 2009. Moreover, the $6.73 trillion spent by the Defense Department in the 21st century dwarfed the annual gross national product of most other countries. Commensurate with the level of resourcing, the Army possesses the finest equipment incorporating the latest technology and the most extensive training program in the world.

The Legacy of Henry O. Flipper in the U.S. Army
(Allen, Washington Post, Jun 14, 2010)
This year on May 22, the President of the United States and Commander and Chief of the Armed Forces, Barack Obama, was the graduation speaker for the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. The birthday of the U.S. Army, June 14, marks the anniversary of another graduation of special note. In 1877, Henry Ossian Flipper became the first African American graduate of West Point. That the United States would elect a black man president 130 years after the first black graduate of West Point would have been beyond the pale for many Americans of that generation and culture.

MLK day: African Americans answering the call of military service
(Allen, Washington Post, Jan 14, 2010)
MLK day: African Americans answering the call of military service
Col. Allen delivered this speech on Jan. 14, 2010 at the US Army War College and Carlisle Barracks observation of Martin Luther King Day.

Army Strong - Really?
(Allen, "Of Interest", SSI, April 2011)
It would be easy to discount the conjecture that the U.S. Army is in trouble. After all, we are unmatched as a fighting force and were successful in conducting military opera-tions for regime change in two countries in the space of 18 months. Our budget in the 21st century dwarfs the gross national product of most other countries.

Profession of Arms Study Trust Review
(Allen, "Of Interest", SSI, March 2011)
As part of the Profession of Arms (PoA) study, the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) tasked the U.S. Army War College (USAWC) to examine the key attribute of trust at the institutional level. "The Profession of Arms" White Paper identifies trust as "clearly the most important attribute we seek for the Army."1 While TRADOC's guidance directed the USAWC to focus on specific external environments (e.g., civil-military, media-military), it is equally important to consider trust relationships in the context of interagency, intergovernmental, multi-national, and coalition activities in which the Army and its senior leaders engage.

Coherence and Contrasts
(Allen, "Of Interest", SSI, January 2011)
On November 18, 2010, two late night television shows provided fanfare for two men from different ends of the leadership spectrum. One man's example epitomized tactical and direct-level leadership; the other was the definition of strategic leadership. To me, it came together while watching interviews that were less than 20 minutes apart. The Colbert Report featured Medal of Honor recipient Army Staff Sergeant (SSG) Salvatore Giunta, and The Tonight Show host Jay Leno spoke with former President George W. Bush. The reasons for the national spotlight could not have been more different but the two men are inextricably linked.

Leadership for Sustainable Installations
(Allen, Journal of Installation Management, Spring 2011)
The perpetual question for leaders is whether they or the organizations they lead matter. To answer such questions requires serious contemplation as to why their organization exists and how it remains relevant to its major clients and stakeholders. For garrison commanders, the first answer may be obvious based on the revised (in February 2011) mission of IMCOM to "provide Soldiers, Civilians and their Families with a quality of life commensurate with the quality of their service."

Systems Thinking in Campaign Design
(Allen & Cunningham, Strategos, Fall 2010)
Strategic campaign planners and statesmen often begin their analyses by assuming a linear cause and effect relationship similar to a move/countermove exchange in chess. Although such linear formulations may sometimes be a useful starting point for leaders, they can also be disastrously misleading. Systems thinking, however, provides an alternative that compensates for the limits of linear reasoning in military campaign design.

Lessons Not Learned: Civil-Military Disconnect in Afghanistan
(Allen, Armed Forces Journal, Sep 2010)
The relief of two four-star operational commanders in Afghanistan, America's "war of necessity," warrants an examination of not only civil-military relations but also leader-follower dynamics and the question of whether there was a disconnect between these senior leaders and their bosses.

Redress of Professional Military Education: A Clarion Call
(Allen, Joint Forces Quarterly, Oct 2010)
In 1908, the American short story writer O. Henry penned "The Clarion Call." This title has become synonymous with a powerful request for action or an irresistible mandate. As the Nation looks to the institution of the U.S. Army during an era of persistent conflict and after 9 years of war, it is time to recapture professional military education (PME) as part of our profession.

Culture & Cognition
(Coates & Allen, SBR, Summmer 2010)
Political scientist, Samuel Huntington (1993) posited that future global politics and conflicts would center on clashes between civilizations. Indeed, his prophetic words were realized in 2001 ...

Garrison Leadership Enlisting Others
(Allen, Journal of Installation Management, July 2010)
Some Commanders had not worked with a predominantly Civilian workforce ... add to that stakeholders - customers (family members, Host Nation politicians, US politicians, etc.). Suddenly you are forced to think (strategically) across several spectrums ... the kinds and depth of tasks are also challenging - the GC has to know a little bit about a lot of things.

The Danger of Deja vu , Why the Iraq surge is not a lesson for Afghanistan
(from Armed Forces Journal, December 2009)
During the past year, we have seen our U.S. national security establishment ponder the question of what to do next in Afghanistan. With the January inauguration, a new president became commander in chief and sought to fulfill his promise to refocus on the "necessary war."

Operational Design of Campaigns, A Hedge Against Operational Failures
This monograph will examine the Mesopotamia campaign up to the British surrender at Kut in April. 1916. The puppose of this monograph is to answer the following research question: What are the modern implications of the operational failures of the British forces in the Mesopotamia Campaign of 1914-1916.

Developing Creative and Critcal Thinkers
By Charles D. Allen and Steve Gerras
(From - MILITARY REVIEW - November-December 2009)
IN APRIL 2009, Defense Secretary Robert Gates visited each of the senior service colleges to present his rationale for budget recommendations to the president. We can infer that his purpose was to communicate the critical priorities for the Fiscal Year 2010 national defense budget directly to emerging armed services senior leaders. His FY 2010 recommendations challenged the existing advice and direction of the service leaders and would result in the cutting of major weapon systems.

Organizational Culture: A Hybrid Model
By Steve Gerras, Leonard Wong, Charles D. Allen
Explanations for the success of militaries both in war and peace have traditionally focused on key factors such as technology, leadership, personnel, training, or a combination of all of the above. A more recent addition to the list of possible variables contributing to the effectiveness of military organizations is the concept of culture. As expected, most applications of the concept of culture in a military context do so with the term military culture. While military culture is often used effectively as an overarching label for the military's personality, way of thinking, or values, there is little literature that defines the term military culture, categorizes or delineates the values that military culture claims to capture, or more importantly, provides methods or techniques to change the military culture.

Book Review (Parameters, Spring 2010): Honor Bright: History and Origins of the West Point Honor Code and System
- By Lewis Sorley. Reviewed by Colonel (Ret.) Charles D. Allen, Assistant Professor of Cultural Sciences, US Army War College.

Book Review: America's Army
- Reviewed by Professor Charles D. Allen, Professor of Cultural Science, US Army War College.

Why Senior Military Leaders Fail
(from Armed Forces Journal, June 2009)
In the first decade of the 21st century, the U.S. military bserved the firings or resignations of the chief of staff of the Air Force, the secretaries of the Army and the Air Force, plus several general officers, including the commander of U.S. Central Command and most recently the senior American commander in Afghanistan.

Strategic Decision Making Paradigms: A Primer For Senior Leaders
The goal for the year at the United States Army War College (USAWC) is to prepare our students to be strategic leaders or to serve as effective advisers to the senior leadership of our military and this Nation. Nobel Laureate, Elihu Root, the Secretary of War in 1901, challenged our institution to study the three great problems of national defense, military science and responsible command.

Systems Thinking for Strategic Leaders
Strategic thinkers and statesmen often begin their analysis by assuming a linear cause and effect relationship similar to a move/countermove exchange in chess. Although such linear formulations are a useful starting point for strategic leaders, they can be misleading.

Selecting the Best for our Army's Future
(from 1775, Winter 2007/2008)
In the late spring of 2007, I was contacted by the Army via email to determine my availability to sit on a selection board for senior members of our Army Non-commissioned Offi cers (NCO) Corps. As with most queries for taskings, I was not eager to volunteer, but this was a unique opportunity to see the process firsthand.

Garrison Commanders: Leading at Several Levels
(from Journal of Installation Management, Summer 2007)
Our Army continues to face the challenges of the 21st century posed by the strategic environment and the missions it must perform to protect the national interests of the United States. To achieve its vision of providing relevant and ready forces to combatant commanders, the Army has to simultaneously meet operational requirements and execute functional or institutional support as outlined in the United States Code Title 10.

Garrison Command Skills for Success
(from Journal of Installation Management, Winter 2007-2008)
At the time of the publication of this article, the slate of garrison commanders that will assume leadership of installations in the summer of 2008 is well known. Incoming commanders are looking at calendars to coordinate attendance at pre-command courses, completing requirements of their current position, and preparing for the upcoming assumption of command.

Garrison Command: Key Leader Judgments
(from Journal of Installation Management, Summer 2008)
The lead articles in the last two editions of this publication presented my view that garrison command spans several levels of leadership (direct, organizational and strategic) and provided a perspective of skills (technical, conceptual, and interpersonal) that garrison commanders should have to be successful.

Creative Thinking for Individuals and Teams
Leadership at all levels is involved with tackling existing problems and anticipating threats and opportunities that may emerge for the organization and the attainment of its goals. Rarely are those problems identical; many important issues facing strategic leaders require novel approaches. Consequently, solutions to tough problems require creativity and innovation from members of an organization if it is to adapt and thrive in a competitive landscape.

Garrison Command: The First 90 Days
(from Journal of Installation Management, Summer 2009)
About this time of year, our U. S. Army War College (USAWC) students have mapped out the academic year in preparation for their assignments after graduation. The students naturally seek to take maximum advantage of the limited time for reflection that is available this year. Across the Army there are several Senior Service College students who will assume brigade-level command in the summer of 2009 and a handful of them will be garrison commanders (with a similar number of IMCOM civilians that are aspiring Deputies to Garrison Commanders (DGCs).


Articles by Dr. Thomas Galvin

Professional Military Education, Mentoring Has Value When Your Soldiers Want for Experience
Galvin, Allen, ARMY, July 2015
Counseling, coaching and mentoring are three vitally important leader development activities for maintaining excellence and professionalism among the Army's officers, NCOs and civilians. Each activity serves a different purpose. Counseling allows subordinates to receive constructive feedback from their supervisors to improve duty performance. Coaching is how leaders guide their subordinates toward achieving higher levels of knowledge and skills. Mentoring is for more transformational purposes, accelerating the development of professional expertise, maturity, and conceptual and team-building skills. Together, these activities help leaders grow professionally and personally while preparing them for positions of increasing responsibility.

Assignment: Special Assistant to the Commander
Galvin, Military Review, March-April 2015
If you are or will be serving (especially for the first time) in a higher headquarters—such as service component command, combatant command, service staff, or joint staff—it is likely that you will be assigned to or collaborating with something called a commander’s action group (CAG).

Writing Faculty Papers for Joint Professional Military Education
Galvin, NDU Press, April 2015
In joint professional military education (JPME), there is no tool more powerful than the written word. Whether in the form of books, journal articles, opinion pieces, or course papers, students and faculty members demand high levels of intellectual rigor and reflection in both the products they read and the ones they produce. Scholarly writing requires precision in terminology and recognition of the limits and boundaries of one’s arguments. When done well, written works make indelible and permanent contributions to our professional domain of knowledge.

A Phenomenoligical Study of Identity Construction Among Military Officers Promoted from the Middle Ranks to the Roles of Senior Leaders
Galvin, May 2015
This phenomenological study investigated the lived experience of identity construction during a military officer’s role change from the middle ranks to senior leader. This role change encompassed education, training, and work experiences over the course of several years between the initial selection for advancement and the first official duty assignment in a senior leader position. The inquiry focused on active duty U.S. Amy officers in the rank of colonel or lieutenant colonel (promotable) and the construction of their identities as senior leaders during this multi-year process. The officers’ narratives provided insight into how the role change affected their self-concepts and how they coped with the challenges of ascending to a more complex environment with greater responsibilities to both the Army and the Nation.


Miscellaneous Articles

Military professionalism (1970's study) A 1970's study by the U.S. Army War College on Military professionalism

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